Appendix III. How to Backup

Basic

1) Cloud storage

  • Tsinghua cloud based on seafile 清华云,在校内使用速度快。

  • Nutstore cloud 商业云存储,每个月有免费的备份流量。自己申请账号使用。

  • Nextcloud 实验室内部搭建的云存储。找实验室管理人员开通账户。

2) Backup tool that comes with the system

3a) Backup your code with GitHub

  • Create and edit your repositories (repos.) at GitHub on line

  • Use GitHub Desktop App to sync your local projects (code) with Github repos.

Advanced

3b) Backup your code with GitHub in Terminal

[user]
email =[NNN@NN.com]
name = Shared
  • Clone/Download an existed repository on github

git clone git@github.com:lulab/RNAfinder_Server.git
git clone https://github.com/xug15/test.git
  • Create a new repository

echo "# test" >> README.md
git init
git add README.md
git commit -m "first commit"
git remote add origin https://github.com/xug15/test.git
git push -u origin master
  • Sync local files with github repo

Pull (update):

git pull origin master
git log -n 2 # look at the last two log entries.

Add:

git add exmaples/
git commit -m ‘20190705v1’
git push origin

Change:

git commit -m ‘20190705v1’
git push origin

Remove:

git rm *.file
git commit -m ‘20190705v1’
git push origin

Tips: the bash script to sync a github repo:

time=`date`
echo $time
git add -u .
git add *
git commit -m '$time'
git push origin master

4) Backup data using rsync and crontab

4.0) Setup ssh key (optional)

  • (a) Generate SSH key

ssh-keygen -t rsa -b 2048
  • (b) Copy your keys to the target server

ssh-copy-id user@server_ip #if port add: -p 2200

上述操作后,通过ssh到remote server时就可以无需输入密码了,因此下面的步骤也可以在无人值守的时候自动运行。

但如果下面的步骤中你无需登录remote server, 就无需setup ssh key。

4.1) Prepare a backup script with rsync

  • (a) First you need to prepare some backup dirs

mkdir /home/john/backup_local # prepare a backup dir for some local files
mkdir /home/john/backup_remote # prepare a backup dir for some remote files
  • (b) Then, write a back up script, for example : ~/backup.sh

#!/bin/bash
#0. Define the parameters of rsync
RSYNC="rsync --stats --compress --recursive --times --perms --links --delete --max-size=100M --exclude-from=/home/john/excluded_file_list.txt"
#A. Local backup
echo "1. Backup of /home/john/data start at:"
date
$RSYNC /home/john/data/ /home/john/backup_local/
echo "Backup end at:"
date
#B. Remote backup
echo "2. Backup 166.178.56.20:/home/lulab/john/data/ start at:"
date
$RSYNC john@166.178.56.20:/home/lulab/john/data/ /home/john/backup_remote/
echo "Backup end at:"
date
  • (c) Last, make your backup.sh excutable

chmod +x ~/backup.sh

Parameters of rsync (use man rsync to see more details):

Parameter

Mean

-a:

以递归方式传输文件

--delete:

删除那些接收端还有而发送端已经不存在的文件

-q:

精简输出模式

-z:

在传输文件时进行压缩处理

-H:

保持硬链接文件

-t:

对比两边文件的时间戳和文件大小.如果一致,则就认为两边文件一样,对此文件就不再采取更新动作了

-I:

挨个文件去发起数据同步

--port=PORT:

端口号

4.2) Schedule the back tasks with crontab

crontab是Linux中用来定期执行程序的命令, 你可以使用 在线crontab生成器,也可以按如下方式自己编辑:

  • 打开crontab编辑器:

crontab -e
  • 加入以下行:

# minute hour day_in_month month day_in_week command
15 3 * * * /home/john/backup.sh > /home/john/backup.log

Linux将通过crontab定时运行上述命令, 具体定义如下:

Column

Mean

Column 1:

Minutes 0 to 59

Column 2:

Hours 0 to 23 (0 means midnight)

Column 3:

Day 1 to 31

Column 4:

Months 1~12

Column 5:

Week 0 to 7 (0 and 7 for Sunday)

Column 6:

Command to run

5) More Reading for advanced users

  • 鸟哥的Linux私房菜-基础学习篇》 (25章推荐章节)

    Linux 推荐章节:

    • 第25章 LINUX备份策略: 25.2.2完整备份的差异备份; 25.3鸟哥的备份策略; 25.4灾难恢复的考虑; 25.5重点回顾